When the Liberal Party reached power in Panama in 1912 it started a period that lasted until 1941. A period in which Panamanians, due to the special circumstances under which the country became independent, the presence of the United States, and of thousands of foreign workers in its territory, began to doubt and asked themselves if they were truly independent. The American presence impacted politics and a sense of inferiority developed because people believed that nothing could be accomplished without the blessings of the United States. In the middle of chaotic political scene and self-doubt, the country retreated to its Hispanic past and began an effort to Hispanize in the face of so much foreign presence and influence, and tried to show the world that Panama was an independent country with history and traditions, and not an appendage of the United States. Belisario Porras, who became president in 1912, emphasized the Hispanic past and built statues to Balboa and Cervantes. Acción Comunal, founded in 1923, promoted nationalism and criticized the corrupt nature of politics. It led a successful campaign against the 1926 Treaty and a coup in 1931. This new generation repudiated the generation that made the 1903 Treaty. “Panama for Panamanians” became one of the catch phrases for the Panamanian youth of the 1920’s and 1930’s, which found in the brothers Harmodio and Arnulfo Arias the leading exponents.